Highlights included updates on COVID-19 vaccine tolerance in individuals with rheumatic diseases, the latest data on medical cannabis use in fibromyalgia, and more.
The COVID-19 vaccine is generally safe and well tolerated in individuals living with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, according to research results presented at ACR Convergence 2021, the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology.1-3
“[C]oncerns prevail about the effectiveness and safety of vaccination against COVID-19, especially with respect to triggering [rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease] flares,” wrote authors of one abstract.1 For patients and health care providers, these concerns are validated by the knowledge that clinical trials on the safety and efficacy of these vaccines “did not include patients with autoimmune diseases,” according to another team of researchers.2
In the first of 3 abstracts,1 German researchers reviewed data from the observational, longitudinal German COVID-19 vaccination registry, which launched on February 8, 2021. These registry data were voluntarily entered by patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases who received at least 1 COVID-19 vaccine before May 29, 2021.
Investigators reviewed data from 866 patients (median age, 54 years; 81% women). Fifty percent of patients had been given diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis, whereas 31% had spondyloarthritis. The most common treatment at the time of vaccination was conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy (59%), followed by glucocorticoids (33%), tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (23%), Janus kinase inhibitors (9%), and IL-17 inhibitors (5%).
Over the previous 12-month period, 42% of patients reported no disease activity, and comorbidities— most commonly arterial hypertension—were present in 40% of patients. The majority of patients in the registry were vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (67%), whereas 28% were vaccinated with the Astra-Zeneca vaccine—which is not yet approved by the FDA for use in the United States. Following the first vaccine, disease flares were indicated in only 13% of participants; within this group, 6% required a change in immunomodulation treatment.
In 41% of these participants, an increase in glucocorticoid dose was sufficient for patients to cope with the flare. These preliminary results, the researchers concluded, “support the recommendation for COVID-19 vaccination” in patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases.
In the second abstract,2 researchers sought to compare the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) after vaccination between patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy controls. Study data were collected via digital questionnaire to participants enrolled in 2 ongoing prospective cohort studies at the Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center and Amsterdam UMC.
In total, 501 participants with autoimmune diseases (rheumatic disease, n = 420; multiple sclerosis, n =81) and 184 healthy controls (mean ages, 63 ± 11 years and 64 ± 11 years, respectively; 66% and 65% women) received a Pfizer-BioNTech or Astra-Zeneca COVID-19 vaccine. A majority of patients in the control group experienced “at least 1 mild AE” (56% vs 58%); only 23% and 21% of participants experienced a moderate AE, and only 1% of patients in the autoimmune disease group experienced a severe AE (0% in the control group), making severe AEs rare.
Overall, 5% of participants reported experiencing a deterioration of their autoimmune disease after vaccination. These data, wrote the researchers, “demonstrate that patients with autoimmune diseases are not at an increased risk of experiencing AEs from vaccination” with the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or AstraZeneca vaccines.
In a US-based study, researchers sought to characterize the rates and types of COVID-19 vaccine AEs in a population of adults living with rheumatic diseases.3 Data were collected from adults enrolled in FORWARD, The National Databank for Rheumatic Diseases who answered supplemental COVID-19 vaccination questionnaires during March and April 2021.
In a group of 1825 respondents, 48% reported experiencing AEs—most commonly arm soreness, fatigue, muscle aches, and headache. Although the ranked frequency did not differ by vaccine type, the incidence of each AE was significantly higher among participants who received the Moderna vaccine.
Younger age, female sex, higher education, full vaccination, and higher COVID-19–related stress were all associated with a higher risk of experiencing AEs. In both Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna groups, differences in AE experience by age “held true,” according to researchers (odds ratios [ORs], 0.96 and 0.97, respectively).
Differences by sex and by COVID-19–related stress were specific to Moderna vaccine recipients (ORs, 1.83 and 1.5) whereas differences by education were specific to those who received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (OR, 1.16).
“A lack of reactogenicity with rheumatic disease, severity, and treatments may be reassuring for the vaccine hesitant,” the researchers concluded.3 Although further research is needed, each of these studies demonstrates both the tolerability and the low risk of disease flare associated with vaccination against COVID-19.